In all states except Berlin and Brandenburgthis orientation phase is embedded into the program of the secondary schools. The decision for a secondary school influences the student's future, but during this phase changes can be made more easily. In practice this rarely comes to bear because teachers are afraid of sending pupils to more academic schools whereas parents are afraid of sending their children to less academic schools.
X-Y View of Lorenz Attractor 3. Chaos in Industry Since chaotic systems are systems that only appear to be random, but are really deterministic in nature, they possess an underlying order.
This underlying order leads to the possibility of controlling chaotic systems. William Ditto and Louis Pecora have been pioneering methods of controlling chaotic mechanical, electrical and biological systems . For example, Pecora and Thomas Carroll of the U.
Naval Research Laboratory realized that synchronized chaos might be used for encoding private electronic communications. An explanation of synchronized chaos is necessary here to understand what they did.
Chaotic systems are described as having an infinite number of unstable periodic motions. This instability means that no two chaotic systems can be built that provide the same output. However, it has been shown that if two identical stable systems are driven by the same chaotic signal, they will generate a chaotic output, but their inherent stability causes them to suppress differences between them.
The result is two identical chaotic outputs. At the sending location, generate a chaotic signal and use it as the input to a stable system to generate another chaotic output signal. Mix the chaotic output signal with a message; the result is another signal that looks chaotic but has a message embedded in it.
Now transmit two signals to the receiving location: At the receiving location, feed the original chaotic signal into a stable system identical to that at the sending location; the result is the same chaotic signal that was mixed with the message at the sending station.
Subtract this from the message-encoded chaotic signal and you have the original message. While it has been shown that it is not too difficult to intercept and extract the message from the chaos encoded message, if this method is layered on top of other encrypting methods, it enhances the security of private transmissions.
While the technique just discussed is a method of using chaos, others are working on methods of controlling chaos. Since a chaotic system is composed of an infinite number of unstable periodic orbits, the key to controlling the system is to wait until the system comes near the desired periodic orbit and then perturb the input parameters just enough to encourage the system to stay on that orbit.
Yorke who developed the system-has been used successfully in stabilizing lasers and other industrial systems. But the techniques employed in the OGY method are not limited to industry; they show promise in controlling chaotic behavior in the human body as well.
Chaos in the Human Body It has been argued that some cardiac arrhythmias are instances of chaos. This opens the doors to new strategies of control. The traditional method of controlling a system is to model it mathematically in sufficient detail to be able to control critical parameters.
However, this method fails in chaotic systems since no model can be developed for a system with an infinite number of unstable orbits. The OGY method mentioned above was able to exploit the properties of chaotic mechanical and electrical systems, however, system-wide parameters in the human body can not be manipulated quickly enough to control cardiac chaos.
OGY then varies a system-wide parameter to move the stable manifold to the system state point; our method perturbs the system state point to move it toward the stable manifold. In eleven separate experimental runs, the technique was successful at controlling induced arrhythmia in eight cases.
The good thing is that the stimuli did not simply over drive the heart; stimuli did not even have to be delivered on every beat.Home Writing Proficiency Screening Test (WPST) Scoring Guide, Prompts & Student Essays.
Scoring Guide, Prompts & Student Essays. Prompt #1. discuss the problem as you have experienced or noticed it and then describe no more than two money-saving changes that California State University, Stanislaus could implement.
The change or changes.
The composition requirements at CSU. To receive a degree from Chicago State University, students must complete six hours of English Composition.
English department faculty grade the examination essays and assign a score of 6, 5, or 4, which are passing . Mike Palmquist is an Associate Provost at Colorado State University, where he leads university-wide efforts to enhance learning and teaching in face-to-face, blended, and distance courses.
A professor of English and University Distinguished Teaching Scholar, he is recognized nationally for his work in computer-supported writing instruction and, in particular, in designing Web-based. Select a course after choosing a department Select a section after choosing a course No Courses Selected!
Cal Poly’s application for the Fall term opened Oct. 1 on the university’s online application portal, Cal State Apply. Cal State Apply allows applicants to apply to multiple California State University (CSU) campuses with the same application.
Unlike many colleges and universities, Cal Poly’s application does not require an essay. About the CSU. The CSU system is m ade up of 23 campuses across the state of California. The California State University educates , students every year.
The CSU has one of the most diverse student bodies in the United States. Learn More About the CSU Our Alumni. Notable CSU alumni have gone on to lead key industries, from aerospace and.