They have been observed for many years Sol-war] A new report published in the latest edition of the American Journal of Modern Physics has revealed a startling finding — a newly developed telescope with concave lenses has observed, for the first time, entities in our terrestrial environment that are invisible to our eyes and to conventional Galileo telescopes with convex lenses. However, I will add what the former CIA military whistleblower medical doctor told me me.
Primum Mobile "First Moved" Ptolemy did not invent or work out this order, which aligns with the ancient Seven Heavens religious cosmology common to the major Eurasian religious traditions.
It also follows the decreasing orbital periods of the moon, sun, planets and stars. Islamic astronomy and geocentrism[ edit ] Main articles: His alternative system spread through most of Europe during the 13th century.
The "Maragha school" was an astronomical tradition beginning in the Maragha observatory and continuing with astronomers from the Damascus mosque and Samarkand observatory. Like their Andalusian predecessors, the Maragha astronomers attempted to solve the equant problem the circle around whose circumference a planet or the center of an epicycle was conceived to move uniformly and produce alternative configurations to the Ptolemaic model without abandoning geocentrism.
They were more successful than their Andalusian predecessors in producing non-Ptolemaic configurations which eliminated the equant and eccentrics, were more accurate than the Ptolemaic model in numerically predicting planetary positions, and were in better agreement with empirical observations.
In his book, Ibn al-Shatir, an Arab astronomer of the fourteenth century, E. Kennedy wrote "what is of most interest, however, is that Ibn al-Shatir's lunar theory, except for trivial differences in parameters, is identical with that of Copernicus — AD.
The possibility that Copernicus independently developed the Tusi couple remains open, since no researcher has yet demonstrated that he knew about Tusi's work or that of the Maragha school. Please improve the article or discuss the issue. June Learn how and when to remove this template message This drawing from an Icelandic manuscript dated around illustrates the geocentric model.
Not all Greeks agreed with the geocentric model. The Pythagorean system has already been mentioned; some Pythagoreans believed the Earth to be one of several planets going around a central fire.
It was revived in the Middle Ages by Jean Buridan. Heraclides Ponticus was once thought to have proposed that both Venus and Mercury went around the Sun rather than the Earth, but this is no longer accepted.
He wrote a work, which has not survived, on heliocentrismsaying that the Sun was at the center of the universe, while the Earth and other planets revolved around it. Copernican heliocentrism Inthe geocentric system met its first serious challenge with the publication of Copernicus ' De revolutionibus orbium coelestium On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Sphereswhich posited that the Earth and the other planets instead revolved around the Sun.
The geocentric system was still held for many years afterwards, as at the time the Copernican system did not offer better predictions than the geocentric system, and it posed problems for both natural philosophy and scripture. The Copernican system was no more accurate than Ptolemy's system, because it still used circular orbits.
This was not altered until Johannes Kepler postulated that they were elliptical Kepler's first law of planetary motion. With the invention of the telescope inobservations made by Galileo Galilei such as that Jupiter has moons called into question some of the tenets of geocentrism but did not seriously threaten it.
Because he observed dark "spots" on the moon, craters, he remarked that the moon was not a perfect celestial body as had been previously conceived. This was the first time someone could see imperfections on a celestial body that was supposed to be composed of perfect aether. As such, because the moon's imperfections could now be related to those seen on Earth, one could argue that neither was unique: Galileo could also see the moons of Jupiter, which he dedicated to Cosimo II de' Mediciand stated that they orbited around Jupiter, not Earth.
He thought that while this observation was incompatible with the Ptolemaic system, it was a natural consequence of the heliocentric system. However, Ptolemy placed Venus' deferent and epicycle entirely inside the sphere of the Sun between the Sun and Mercurybut this was arbitrary; he could just as easily have swapped Venus and Mercury and put them on the other side of the Sun, or made any other arrangement of Venus and Mercury, as long as they were always near a line running from the Earth through the Sun, such as placing the center of the Venus epicycle near the Sun.
In this case, if the Sun is the source of all the light, under the Ptolemaic system: If Venus is between Earth and the Sun, the phase of Venus must always be crescent or all dark.
If Venus is beyond the Sun, the phase of Venus must always be gibbous or full. But Galileo saw Venus at first small and full, and later large and crescent.
In this depiction of the Tychonic system, the objects on blue orbits the moon and the sun revolve around the Earth. Around all is a sphere of stars, which rotates.THOMAS KUHN'S CONCEPT OF PARADIGM, i.e. NARRATIVE DISPLACEMENT IN HISTORY OF SCIENCE. Thomas Samuel Kuhn was born on July 18, , in Cincinnati, Ohio.
In Ptolemaic and Copernican astronomy, the number of adjustable parameters is proportional to the number of circles, so the simplicity of a model decreases as the number of circles increases.
It is not clear how one should define the simplicity of a theory. Two important points of disagreement that existed between the Ptolemaic and Copernican astronomers before Galileo were the poor structure of the Copernican model compared to the Ptolemaic, and the lack of any experimental evidence that could both support .
In this comparison, the Ptolemaic theory was superior for Venus and Saturn, and the Copernican theory superior for Mars and Jupiter. It should be noted that in his observational notebook Tycho recorded only the observed and predicted longitudes.
12 He did not explicitly compute the difference between observations and predictions. Models of the Universe are described and classified into three major categories: Historic, Expanding, and Cellular.
It is shown that all expanding universe models violate the cosmic edge and containment principle. The multi-millennium conflict between the two major world views --the changing dynamic universe and the unchanging stable universe-- is highlighted. Essays & Papers The Ptolemaic Model Essay - Paper Example The Ptolemaic Model Essay Over the course of the human history, dozens of philosophers and astronomers sought to create the most objective and the most accurate vision of the solar system and the universe - .